Journal of Advances in Health and Medical Sciences
Journal ISSN: 2517-9616
Article DOI:
Received: 30 May 2014
Accepted: 29 July 2015
Published: 15 October 2015
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  • A dream for pregnant mothers and newborn babies in rural India

Ramchandra Goyal

Published online: 2015


Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSDs) is an occupational health problem encountered by workers all over the world. In Malaysia, there is an increasing trend over the years, particularly in the manufacturing sector. Current methods to observe WMSDs include self-report questionnaires, observations and direct measurements. In particular, the observation method is most frequently used due to its simplified, quick and versatile steps when it applies to the worksite. However, some approaches do not cover a wide spectrum of biomechanics activities and not sufficiently sensitive to assess actual risks. This study aims at examining the development of Work Movement Task Analysis (WMTA). It is an observational tool for industrial practitioners, especially for untrained personnel to assess WMSDs risk factors and provide a basis for any required intervention. The first stage of the development protocol involves literature reviews, practitioner survey, tool validation and reliability. A total of six themes/comments are received for the validity stage. A new revision is proposed over WMTA to contain four sections of postural (neck, back, shoulder & arms and legs) and associated risk factors, including movement, load, coupling and basic environmental factors (lighting, noise, odorless, heat and slippery floor). An inter-rater reliability study indicates a substantial agreement among raters (K = 0.70). Besides, WMTA validation shows a significant association between WMTA scores and self-reported pain or discomfort for the back, shoulder & arms and knee & legs (p < 0.05). Looking at these results, the tool is expected to provide a new workplace ergonomic observational tool to assess WMSDs for the next research stage.